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Conveyancing solicitors in Hull, Beverley and East Yorkshire

Buying and/or selling residential property (houses and flats that people live in) is a major decision and one you want to get right. Quite often, the value we see in property can be worth a lot more than the bricks and mortar they’re built with – a house or flat can be a home, a place for family, a private retreat from the rat race, an investment or all of these things and more.

Lockings Solicitors are part of The Law Society's Conveyancing Quality Scheme

Whether you’re a first-time buyer, a family looking to upsize, a retiree or empty-nester looking to downsize, an executor/personal representative (dealing with somebody’s affairs if they have passed away) or a property investor with one or 100 properties, you’ll want the conveyancing process to go as quickly and smoothly as possible. Our property solicitors in Hull and Beverley work across East Yorkshire and beyond to ensure smooth sales, purchases, remortgages and transfers of equity of both freehold and leasehold properties (houses are very often freehold, flats are always leasehold).

Lockings Solicitors were Highly Commended at the LFS Conveyancing Awards 2019

We offer a great service not only for clients local to Hull, Beverley and East Yorkshire but—thanks to technology—nationally. We have a proven track record and invite you to read our client reviews to see for yourself why people trust us for conveyancing. We were highly commended for the Regional Conveyancing Firm of the Year Award (Yorkshire and North East) in the independently judged and highly prestigious LFS Conveyancing Awards 2019 for the second year in a row.

Our commitment to More Speed, Less Stress goes to the heart of what you can expect from our experienced conveyancing teams because this is what, time and time again, we have found our clients like you value the most. Why? More Speed because you want the transaction to go through at your desired pace (and nearly everyone wants it to go more quickly) and Less Stress because you want to be kept in the loop. It’s that simple.


Put us to the test

Call us to Make a Free Enquiry Today on 01482 977 925.
Lockings Solicitors have The Law Society's Legal Practice Quality Mark

Received a conveyancing quote elsewhere? Beware of hidden fees! With our No Hidden Fees promise, what you see is our all-inclusive service fee. For complete peace of mind, we’d be pleased to compare a competitor’s quote at no cost – that way you can compare like for like and don’t get any nasty surprises later down the line when you no longer have a choice.

We helped over 2,500 people move last year. We understand every move is different and you want a service tailored to your individual circumstances. Given this may be one of the biggest financial transactions you will undertake, choosing the right conveyancing solicitor is crucial.

When choosing your legal team there are a number of things to think about. You should always bear in mind that you have the right to choose your own legal adviser and are under no obligation to choose the solicitor recommended by your estate agent or financial institution. So, why choose us? Because We Put You First and this is how.

You’re the Boss. You’re in control.

We are here to advise and help you, but you’re the boss. Your case will be handled by a small, highly-skilled team, headed by one of our very experienced conveyancers (each head has at least 20 years’ experience). The whole team will work with you to carry out your wishes so far as we possibly can.

You’re kept in the loop

Whenever you are dealing with other people (e.g. your buyer and/or seller, lenders, others in the chain if there is one) things are rarely seamless and go exactly as you want them to. Some compromises must be made, such as agreeing on a completion date, but we make buying and selling property as straightforward as possible, keep the process on track, give you as clear timescales as possible and work hard to eliminate all foreseeable delays before they happen.

If there is a delay, we’ll tell you about it so you know where you are – you won’t be left chasing us and you don’t have to put your life on hold. That’s why we say Less Stress rather than No Stress as there is likely to be at least a little somewhere along the way – beware of anyone who tells you otherwise.

You are dealing with people like you

Our people are friendly, down-to-earth and approachable. We recognise that everyone is an individual and do our very best to help you get what you want.

You’ll get a fair deal and No Sale, No Fee

Our fees are very competitive and are completely transparent.

Beware of hidden fees! With our No Hidden Fees promise, what you see is our all-inclusive service fee. For complete peace of mind, we’d be pleased to compare a competitor’s quote at no cost – that way you can compare like for like and don’t get any nasty surprises later down the line when you no longer have a choice.

If, for whatever reason, the sale does not end of up going through, you can be safe in the fact we work on a No Sale, No Fee basis.

You can’t get fairer than that.

Mortgage Lender Solicitor Panels

If you are buying with a mortgage, its peace of mind for you to know that we are on nearly all Mortgage Lender’s Solicitor panels, meaning a quicker and cheaper process for you. We can act for your lender too at no extra cost – you only have to pay our fees, not the fees of another solicitor who acts for your lender.

If you’re buying or have inherited a property with another person, or you have become a trustee, you need to consider whether you’d like to own the property in a joint tenancy or as tenants in common. We’ve included some considerations to take into account below.

Joint Tenancy

Owning a property in a joint tenancy is a popular choice for couples because they have an equal share of the property and, if one of them dies, the whole of the property automatically transfers to the survivor.

This is important to bear in mind if you do not want the surviving owner to benefit from all your interest in the property. If you would like someone else (such as a child from an earlier relationship) to benefit from your interest in the property in addition to or instead of the surviving owner, then you should instead consider owning the property as tenants in common and Making or Updating Your Will to make sure this properly reflects your wishes.

Tenants in Common – Separate Interests

Owning a property as tenants in common allows owners to have separate shares, split however they choose (this is usually in equal shares of 50:50, but any size split is possible).

This arrangement is popular with investors, business partners or siblings, for example, so they can choose who would benefit from their property interests upon their death. If inheritance tax is an issue, there can also be tax advantages to owning the property in this way. Our private client solicitors are able to undertake complex inheritance tax planning to advise you on the best options for your circumstances.

Another point to consider is that having the property interests individually considered means owners (who might not have joint bank accounts, for example) can more readily reflect their share based on their contributions. For example, one party may have contributed a higher figure towards the purchase price, or one party may contribute more to the mortgage repayments or home improvements, and so the share percentages can reflect that.

Questions to Consider

Some questions to ask before entering into this arrangement and deciding how you’ll split the property interests:

  • How much are the parties contributing towards the initial purchase?
  • Who is paying the deposit, and in what shares?
  • Who will pay the mortgage and outgoings?
  • Are you planning any improvements to the property? If so, who will be paying for these?
  • What do you want to happen when the property is sold?
  • What happens if the owners’ relationship breaks down?

What to Do for Complex Arrangements

Sometimes the arrangements can get quite complicated and in these cases a Declaration of Trust is recommended. This deed sets out in detail what you have agreed and should reduce the risk of a dispute in the future. If we are asked to prepare such a document, we would make a separate charge as this is not part of the standard conveyancing process. The charge varies depending on the individual case, but we will agree a fixed price with you in advance.

Once your shares have been recorded, you cannot change those shares unless all of the other owners agree. So make sure you’re certain before finalising your agreement.

If a Gift or Loan is Being Given

If anyone is contributing money towards to purchase of a property, but are not going to have a legal share in the property, they should seek independent legal advice before proceeding. A typical example is a parent helping a child to buy his or her first house. In these cases, we can only act for and advise one party due to the possible conflict of interest.

If a gift or loan is being given, the following considerations should be taken into account:

  • Is the money a loan or a gift?
  • What happens if the other party wants their money back?
  • If a loan, will interest be payable?
  • If a loan, what happens if the property is sold and the money is not repaid?
  • If a loan, does it need to be secured against the property? If so, will this complicate the mortgage arrangements?

Weighing up your options

If you’re buying jointly and one person is making a financial contribution that is more than the other person, it is important to give careful consideration to how the property will be held between you upon completion.

If you decide to hold the property as joint tenants (in equal shares) or tenants in common (in either equal or unequal shares), but one of you is contributing more by way of deposit or cash payment towards the purchase price (which is more than the percentage share you will ultimately own upon completion), then you should be aware that you will effectively make a gift to your co-purchaser(s) as soon as the money arrives into our client account (which will be in your joint names).

For example, if you were buying a property for £100,000 and chose to hold the property between you on a 50:50 basis, but one of you had contributed in the sum of £60,000 (from a bank account in a sole name), then the other co-purchaser would effectively receive a gift of £10,000 (£60,000 minus £50,000). Whilst this entirely normal/intended in most transactions (particularly with married couples), it is important that we highlight the legal and practical implications of this arrangement. Clients may prefer to take independent legal or financial advice if they have any concerns before committing to this arrangement and making any payments.

As experienced property solicitors, our team would be happy to run through your options with you and ensure you fully understand what you’re agreeing to.

If you’re looking to step onto the property ladder for the first time, you’ll likely want to know everything you can; this includes the conveyancing process, expected property and legal costs, about the area itself that you’re looking to move to, whether there are any planned developments that could impact the property, and also whether there’s any support available to help you reach your goals any faster.

We will keep you updated every step of the way. Our team are proactive and thorough, helping you to experience our More Speed, Less Stress conveyancing. We also promise that we’ll speak in plain English with no legal jargon, so that you remain fully informed and know what to expect throughout the buying process.

The various key conveyancing stages we’ll support and advise on include:

  • Approval of the draft contract to ensure it correctly reflects the agreement made between the seller and buyer
  • Approval of the title
  • Property and, if needed, area searches
  • Property forms and title issues
  • Property survey recommendations
  • Financial arrangements to pay for the property
  • Contract negotiations following any searches and surveys
  • Exchange of contracts (confirming a binding agreement between the seller and buyer)
  • Completion (when you’ll pay the final balance and get the keys to move in)

The government has a number of Help to Buy schemes available to help people take the steps to own their own home faster. We briefly look through each of the schemes below.


The government’s ISA (Individual Savings Account) is available to any first-time buyers throughout the UK. The scheme allows you to save quicker; for any savings you make, the government will contribute an additional 25% up to £3,000. To take advantage of this scheme, you need to save at least £1,600 in order to claim the minimum government bonus of £400. One of our property solicitors will apply for the government bonus on your bonus one you close your Help to Buy: ISA account after you buy your first home.

Shared Ownership

The shared ownership scheme allows you to own a share of a home so that you’re not faced with such a large up-front cost. You have the option to purchase a share of between 25% to 75% of the home’s value and pay rent on the remaining share, with the option to purchase the remaining or a larger amount further down the line when you can afford more. This scheme is available if you’re a first-time buyer, or you’re an existing shared homeowner looking to move, and your household earns £80,000 a year or less (or £90,000 a year or less in London).

Equity Loan

Through this scheme, the government will lend you up to 20% of the cost of your home interest-free for the first five years of owning your home. That means you only need a 5% cash deposit to secure a property, and can make up the 75% difference on the home’s value with a mortgage.

Click here to view our conveyancing guide

Click here to view our conveyancing faqs

Team Members

Craig Schofield
Associate Director. Beverley Branch Manager. Conveyancer
Dawn Cowley
Edward G. Wolverson
Chartered Legal Executive
Jessica Hall
Joanna Cheffings
Lesley Connor
Associate Director and Conveyancer
Lynsey Schofield
Associate Director and Conveyancer
Rachelle Laisnez
Director and Head of Commercial Property
Richard Allen
Managing Director and Head of Conveyancing
Richard Swaine
Operations Director
Tina Staples
Licensed Conveyancer

Expert legal advice you can rely on:


Conveyancing Guide


The aim of these notes is to help you understand the various terms you will hear during the course of your transaction and to explain the procedures involved. We believe that a few minutes spent reading through these notes now will give you an overview of the conveyancing process and will help you to make strategic decisions to plan your move and keep the process as stress free as possible.

Please note that we will make certain assumptions on your behalf as part of the house buying process. These assumptions are explained in these notes and are highlighted in bold italic type.

When you first agree to buy or sell property there is no legally binding commitment to go ahead with the deal. After exchange of contracts there are potentially severe financial penalties if you withdraw from the deal.

Before we can advise a buyer to exchange contracts various key stages need to be completed. These are:

  • Approval of the draft contract – to ensure that it correctly reflects the agreement made between the seller and buyer
  • Approval of the title
  • Searches need to be carried out and the results checked
  • Property forms and title issues need to be checked
  • Consideration ought to be given to carrying out a survey
  • Finance needs to be organised and in place
  • The chain needs to be checked to ensure that everyone is ready to proceed
  • The deposit needs to be collected from the buyer

Generally, it takes around 6 weeks to get to exchange of contracts on a freehold purchase from the point we receive the draft contract from the Seller’s Solicitors, but it is very difficult to predict the timescale precisely – factors such as the length of any chain, delays in receiving mortgage offers and searches can all influence the time needed to arrive at the point of exchange of contracts. This is why we recommend that a moving date should not be agreed at the outset of the transaction as it is impossible to know what might happen as the matter progresses. In our experience, agreeing a date too soon can place unnecessary stress on the buyer and seller as they frantically try to hit what might have been an unrealistic target date from the outset.  If you are in rented accommodation, we would strongly advise against giving your notice until exchange of contracts.

The key stages referred to above are set out in more detail below. Most of these stages apply to buyers, but it is useful for sellers to know what the buyer has to do before the buyer is ready to go ahead. Depending on the circumstances of the case, some of the stages described below may not apply.

The contract is prepared by the seller’s solicitor and should reflect the terms of the agreement between the buyer and seller. It contains the full names of the seller and buyer, a description of the property, the price and any other matters, such as restrictions on use of the property that the parties may have agreed between themselves.

When acting for the buyer, we check the contract in readiness for it being signed prior to exchange of contracts.

When acting for the buyer, we prepare the Transfer Deed which confirms the method of Joint Ownership.  If you are buying jointly we need your instructions on joint ownership before we prepare the transfer.  We ask you to confirm this in the Property Questionnaire.  Please see the Joint Ownership page for more information. 

This is a tax payable by the buyer on completion. As from 4th December 2014, tax is payable on completion only upon the part of the purchase price falling within the below percentage rates and bands. 

The government announced at the Spending Review and Autumn Statement 2015 that higher rates of SDLT will be payable from and including 1 April 2016 for property in England and Wales purchased as a Buy-to-let property or second home. As a consequence, clients purchasing a property which falls into either of these categories will have to pay an additional 3% on each stamp duty band. For example, a buy-to-let purchaser buying at £150,000 will be required to pay 3% on the first £125,000 and 5% on the remaining £25,000. The table below shows the rates that will apply.


Existing residential SDLT rates

New additional property SDLT rates

£0* - £125k

0% 3%

£125k - £250k

2% 5%

£250k -£925k

5% 8%

£925k - £1.5m

10% 13%

£1.5m +

12% 15%

 *Transactions under £40,000 do not require a tax return to be filed with HMRC and are not subject to the higher rates.

There are exemptions available depending on your circumstances.  Further information can be found at the following website -

When we receive the contract and supporting title documents from the Seller’s Solicitors we will check the documents supplied and prepare a Preliminary Report.  The Report will be sent to you along with copies of the title and supporting documents received from the Seller including the Property Forms.  At this stage we may need to raise further enquiries with the Seller’s Solicitor.  If so, we will provide you with a copy of our letter.  Because our firm has a Conveyancing Quality Scheme accreditation, we must resist asking any enquiries that could be identified from inspection of the documents, or from your own inspection of the Property.  We will only therefore raise enquiries specific to the title of the property.

When we are fully satisfied that you will obtain good title following completion, when we have replies to all enquiries raised and when we have reported to you on the searches and mortgage and all conditions have been satisfied, we will then send you a final Property Report.  You will need to read through the contents of this report before you provide us with your authority to exchange contracts.

These are supplied by the seller and comprise a list of standard questions concerning the property that most buyers would like to ask. Some typical questions are:

  • Who maintains the boundaries?
  • Are there any guarantees for work done at the property?
  • Have there been any disputes with neighbouring owners?
  • Is the property affected by rights of way?

If the property is leasehold there will also be information concerning the lease, service charges etc.

The seller will also usually supply a list of fixtures and fittings indicating which are included in the price, which are excluded and which may be purchased by separate negotiation.

A seller should disclose all relevant information about the property to his buyer, but if he does not it will be very difficult for the buyer to prove that the seller deliberately withheld information from him. Furthermore, the law operates a “buyer beware” principle which means that it is for the buyer to satisfy himself that the property is structurally sound. Indeed, the law assumes that if the buyer has exchanged contracts he is happy with the state of the property; hence it is very difficult to persuade the courts to help the buyer who only discovers defects after completion, particularly where these could (and should) have been discovered prior to exchange of contracts. 

Whilst most buyers find it tempting to rely on the mortgage lender’s valuation of the property this is rarely sufficient. Buyers should understand that a valuation is exactly that – a valuation – it is NOT a survey.

What is the distinction between the valuation and a survey- and why is it so important, anyway?

A valuation is prepared for the benefit of the mortgage lender to enable it to assess whether the property is good security for the amount of the mortgage loan. The valuer does not undertake a detailed inspection of the property and structural defects and faults may not be identified. Usually the valuation report will contain advice to the buyer that the buyer may not rely upon the contents of the report. In practical terms, this means that if the valuer fails to identify a significant problem with the property which only comes to light after completion, the buyer will have no legal remedy against the valuer and will not be able to seek compensation. The buyer has bought a problem and it will be the buyer who will have to pay to put the problem right. Mistakes do happen. Pity the poor buyers who moved in to their dream home only to find that the valuer had failed to spot that the seller had relocated the staircase in the property and left it balanced on two six inch nails.

It is for this reason that we recommend that buyers should give serious thought to having a detailed survey carried out by their own surveyor. The buyer will have a direct contract with the surveyor – and if things sadly do go wrong the buyer may be able to seek compensation for breach of that contract. However, on the assumption that the surveyor has done a good job – as of course most of them do – the buyer will know what defects exist and may be able to renegotiate on the price to help pay to put the defects right. Even if the surveyor reports that the property is structurally sound and in good order, the buyer should regard the survey fee as money well spent in purchasing the peace of mind that goes with knowing that all is well.

The buyer should also consider whether specialist reports might be needed from tradesmen who can check out the electrical wiring and the central heating or look for evidence of rising damp or timber decay.

Remember – it is the buyer’s job to be satisfied that the property is sound and good value for the price being paid.

We will assume that once a buyer authorises us to exchange contracts on your behalf that you are satisfied with the state and condition of the property and that you have carried out all inspections and surveys that you deem necessary.

Most buyers will require a mortgage to help with the cost of the property. It is not safe to exchange contracts until the buyer has a firm offer in writing from the mortgage lender. Sometimes a mortgage offer may contain conditions that need to be fulfilled before the money can be drawn down.  All lenders require a period of notice to release funds – up to five working days in most cases – and this has to be taken into account when setting completion dates.

A first time buyer of an empty house is lucky – there is no chain.

More often than not there will be a chain of interdependent sales and purchases and exchange of contracts can only take place when everyone in the chain is ready to go ahead. It may be impossible to influence others involved in your chain and buyers and sellers should understand that the various members of the chain may be working to different agendas. One person may wish to complete very quickly, but the first time buyer at the bottom of the chain may not want to complete until his tenancy on his rented flat has expired as he cannot afford to pay both rent and mortgage payments in the same month. One person may receive their mortgage offer very quickly, but someone else in the chain may be having problems obtaining their offer because the wages clerk who was supposed to send off the buyer’s salary information has gone away on holiday and nobody else can deal with it.  Such things can often happen.

On exchange of contracts a deposit is paid by the buyer to the seller. Payment is made through solicitors and is usually 10% of the purchase price, but a smaller deposit may be agreed, particularly if the buyer is obtaining a 95% mortgage. In the chain everyone should in theory find 10% of the price of the property they are buying, but in practice most people’s money is tied up in the house they are selling and there’s no spare cash. As a result, the deposit paid by the buyer at the start of the chain is simply passed along the chain to the end of the line.

Once the above key stages have been reached everything is in place and we can proceed to exchange contracts. Before that can happen, though, we need to agree the completion date.

This is the day when the buyer pays the balance of the price for the house and gets the keys. The seller gets his money and has to move out of the property if he has not done so already.

We strongly recommend that there should be a gap between the date of exchange of contracts and the completion date. We believe that there are compelling reasons for having this gap:

  • It enables the seller and the buyer to make their removal arrangements and arrange for final meter readings confident in the knowledge that the completion date is fixed; and
  • It enables us to request your mortgage funds and carry out our pre-completion searches.

Increasingly clients are asking us to reduce the gap between exchange and completion. Sometimes we are asked to exchange and complete on the same day. Whilst we will of course follow our client’s instructions we must point out that in our experience there will be far less stress and far less chance of things going wrong at the last minute if there is a reasonable gap. As property lawyers one of the worst things that we sometimes have to do is tell clients that their completion will not be taking place due to a last minute hitch down the chain, resulting in some cases in clients having to unload their removal van and carry their furniture back into their “old” house until a new date can be fixed. To add insult to injury they still have to pay their removal men for their time. Such things do happen, though thankfully infrequently, but the chances of things going wrong can be considerably diminished by leaving a gap between exchange and completion. We appreciate that moving in to a new house is an exciting thing and people don’t always want to wait; but consider that most people move only once every 11-14 years – an extra week’s wait is an insignificant amount of time but it can really help remove the stress from the removals process.

If you do instruct us to exchange and complete with little or no gap between the two dates, we will assume that you are aware of the risk that your arrangements may have to be cancelled at the last minute and other arrangements postponed. There may also be financial consequences – for example your removal company may charge a cancellation fee, and we may have to return your mortgage money to the lender, which will incur additional bank charges

We are not usually involved in handing over keys – this is normally dealt with through estate agents. Please note that the keys will not be handed over until the seller’s solicitor has received the purchase money. If there is a chain the keys may not be available until late in the day because the money needs to filter up to the top of the chain via bank transfers. We have no control over how long these transfers will take – if it is a particularly busy day for the banks there may be a time lag. As a rule of thumb, the higher up the chain you are the later you will receive your keys. We do not recommend arriving at your new house before lunch time as this will allow time for the money to be transferred and will cut down any delay in the keys being released to you.

We hope that these notes prove helpful in understanding what is involved in buying and selling a home. Please feel free to ask us if there is anything that you don’t understand during the process – we’re here to help.


Have a question or need some help? Call 01482 977 925

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Conveyancing Guide - FAQ


This is the most common question of all and one that is almost impossible to answer. Many years of experience has told us that you can never predict what is likely to happen.  There are many things our outside our control – too many to list – that the most helpful tip that we can offer is to wait and see how things pan out. You should avoid the natural temptation to set a completion date and arrange removals before you know that everyone in the chain is ready to exchange.

On the completion day we will send you a cheque, or if you prefer we can credit your bank account direct, though this may involve a small bank charge. The money you receive is the sale proceeds, less any outstanding mortgages, and less selling costs.

You need to pay us the deposit before exchange of contracts. The deposit is 10% of the purchase price. If you are borrowing money from a mortgage lender we will arrange to draw down the advance prior to completion. Any remaining balance due from you must be paid prior to completion. We prefer to receive funds electronically by bank transfer as cheques and bank drafts must be cleared and this process can take up to 7 working days. 

If someone other than a mortgage lender is contributing to the purchase price (i.e. you are receiving a gift from a family member), you must inform us about this at the outset of your transaction (by completing the details in the Questionnaire enclosed with our initial letter to you). If you are buying with a mortgage, you must also check with your bank/lender to make sure they are aware of the gift/loan because this may affect the terms of your mortgage offer. If you do not inform your lender, you could be committing mortgage fraud which is a criminal offence.

Whilst it may not be your intention for the person making a gift/loan to be a legal owner of the property with you on completion, there are legal principles which mean that they could still have an interest in the property. In such circumstances, we may need to write to the person making the gift or loan before exchange of contracts to obtain their identity documents and make sure they sign an authority to confirm that they are making a true gift and are prepared to waive any interest in the property. If we are not informed about a gift or loan until funds are transmitted to us shortly before exchange of contracts, this is likely to delay exchange and completion.

The fastest and most secure method of transferring funds is by bank transfer. We send you our bank details to you by post at the start of the transaction. In your welcome pack there is various information to return to us by post including your bank details.

IMPORTANT NOTICE: There is an ever present Risk of fraud by third parties.

Sending funds to us: You cannot rely on bank details sent to you by email, even if they appear to come from this firm. Please check with us that you are using the correct bank details for any payments to be made to us and never rely on an email. Requesting that we send funds to you: We cannot rely on bank details sent to us by email, even if they appear to come from you. Please do not send your bank details by email.

We will not change our bank details during the course of this matter. If, during the course of this matter, you receive an email or phone call purporting to be from us informing you that our bank details have changed , IT is likely to WILL BE AN ATTEMPTED. If this happens, please report it immediately to our cashiers team on 01482 300200 who will verify our bank details and, if necessary, report the matter to the police.

Some banks limit the amount their customers are permitted to transfer via internet banking in one day. You should consider checking this with them before funds are required.

(Please note that in view of the high standards imposed on our profession by the regulations designed to prevent money laundering, we must insist that all clients make electronic payments or by payments by cheque from a bank account in their name(s).)

If you have arranged your finances so that there will be a surplus left over on completion of the sale and purchase, then we will account to you for the balance on completion.

If you intend to put some extra money into the new property, then we will need the balance from you prior to completion.

When contracts have been exchanged there is a legally binding agreement to complete the sale and purchase on the agreed date. There has to be a penalty that would discourage either of the parties from defaulting and the penalty is a financial one involving the payment of interest. So, for example, a buyer who fails to hand over the money on time to complete his purchase will have to pay interest at the rate mentioned in the contract – usually 4% over base rate on the unpaid price.

A restrictive covenant is a condition imposed on the use of land. Examples could be that the land should not be used for business purposes; or that buildings cannot be erected or altered without the consent of the former land owner.

This is a phrase that is often heard during the course of a conveyancing transaction. Put simply it is insurance that will pay out if the event that you are covering yourself against should happen. Popular policies cover such things as:

  • breach of restrictive covenant
  • absence of evidence of a formal right of way
  • lack of planning permission
  • lack of Building Regulations Approval.

Title deeds were effectively abolished by the Land Registration Act 2002 in respect of registered land. Evidence of your ownership of land is contained on the Land Registry’s computer and an office copy of that entry is sufficient to establish your ownership of the land. About 90% of residential property has been registered at the Land Registry, but for those properties that have not been registered yet – known, unsurprisingly as unregistered property – title deeds are still important for it is the deeds that prove your ownership of your land. If you have a mortgage, your mortgage lender will hold these deeds. If you do not have a mortgage you may hold the deeds personally, or they may be held in safekeeping with your bank or solicitor. We need the deeds to enable us to prepare the contract for the sale of unregistered land.

It is often tempting for a buyer to try to save Stamp Duty Land Tax by paying for fixtures and fittings separately as money paid for these items does not attract Stamp Duty Land Tax. This is rarely legal and can carry severe penalties including imprisonment for tax evasion. For this reason, we insist that clients provide us with an independent valuation of the fixtures and fittings carried out by a reputable valuer and in the absence of this we cannot agree to this type of deal and the full amount of Stamp Duty Land Tax will have to be paid.

Anyone in the chain can pull out before contracts have been exchanged without even having to give a reason. Usually however people will pull out because they have had a bad survey result or there has been a change in their financial circumstances. If this happens no compensation is payable to anyone else in the chain.

After exchange of contracts there are potentially very serious financial penalties for withdrawing. At the very least the buyer will lose his deposit if he seeks to pull out; the seller will face an action for damages for breach of contract.

The deposit is paid by the buyer’s solicitor to the seller’s solicitor on exchange of contracts. It is a part payment of the price and credit for the deposit is given on completion when the remaining balance is paid over. The contract calls for a deposit of 10% of the price. If the buyer fails to complete, then subject to following certain procedures, the seller can keep the deposit.

Often, a buyer will not be able to pay a 10% deposit. It might be argued that a seller who accepts less than 10% deposit will be prejudiced if the buyer fails to complete. The seller might require the buyer to come up with a higher deposit.  However, buyers fail to complete on time only very rarely – and we take the view that from a seller’s point of view it is better to exchange contracts as soon as possible with a low deposit to secure the sale rather than wait for a higher deposit to become available. The greater the delay in exchange of contracts the more chance there is that someone in the chain may back out – and this happens far more frequently than buyers failing to complete once contracts have been exchanged. For this reason, on your behalf we will accept whatever deposit is available at the time of exchange of contracts unless you instruct us to the contrary.


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